Screenshot: Naughty Canine

One Friday night time final month, some artists on the online game studio Naughty Canine had been engaged on their newest recreation once they heard a crash. A big metallic pipe had fallen from above them and landed proper subsequent to their desks. If it had dropped a couple of ft nearer, the results might need been dire. It was late, previous 9 p.m., and the development employees above had maybe recklessly assumed that no person was there. However at Naughty Canine, individuals had been at all times there.

The homeowners of the constructing reacted rapidly, firing that development group, hiring a brand new one, and putting in new security measures to make sure that an accident like that wouldn’t occur once more. To some Naughty Canine workers, nonetheless, it was emblematic of an unhealthy tradition—the kind of setting the place a late-night development accident would possibly happen whereas individuals had been nonetheless on the workplace. The Final of Us Half II, the studio’s new PlayStation Four recreation about individuals attempting to outlive in a post-apocalyptic United States, can be out on Could 29. Immediately, as most of the builders at Naughty Canine put in nights and weekends on the workplace to complete the sport, some proceed to ask themselves a query that has haunted the studio for years: Is it price it?

As one Naughty Canine developer not too long ago instructed me: “This recreation is de facto good, however at an enormous value to the individuals.”

Even in an trade the place additional time is ubiquitous, the place it’s near-impossible to discover a recreation that isn’t the results of weeks or months of crunch, Naughty Canine stands out. Its video games, together with the Uncharted journey collection and 2013’s groundbreaking The Final of Us, are extensively thought-about among the many better of the perfect, with ultra-realistic graphical constancy and the kind of meticulous particulars you wouldn’t see in different video games. Taking pictures a sack of grain in Uncharted 4 would trigger the sack to deflate as barley poured out of it. Shining a flashlight at Ellie’s face in The Final of Us led her to blink and switch away. These particulars exist as a result of Naughty Canine has constructed a tradition of perfectionism, the place video games must be nice, regardless of the human value.

Illustration for article titled As Naughty Dog Crunches On iThe Last Of Us II/i, Developers Wonder How Much Longer This Approach Can Last

Many who’ve labored at Naughty Canine through the years describe it as a duality—as a spot that may be concurrently the perfect and the worst office on the earth. Working at Naughty Canine means designing beloved, critically acclaimed video games alongside artists and engineers who’re thought-about a few of the biggest of their fields. However for a lot of of those self same individuals, it additionally means working upwards of 12-hour days and even weekends when the studio is in crunch mode, sacrificing their well being, relationships, and private lives on the altar of the sport.

“They do attempt to maintain you, offering meals, encouragement to go take breaks,” mentioned one former developer. “However for essentially the most half, the implication is: ‘Get the job performed in any respect prices.’”

One main consequence of this tradition has been attrition. Of the 20 non-lead designers in the credits of 2016’s Uncharted 4, a whopping 14—70 p.c—are now not on the studio, which has had wide-ranging results on the event of The Final of Us II and led to questions in regards to the continued viability of the Naughty Canine method. Some Naughty Canine veterans tolerate and even benefit from the crunch, whereas a handful have even discovered methods to work regular hours, however these talking to Kotaku say they see it as an untenable ambiance.

“This will’t be one thing that’s persevering with time and again for every recreation, as a result of it’s unsustainable,” mentioned one developer on The Final of Us II. “At a sure level you understand, ‘I can’t hold doing this. I’m getting older. I can’t keep and work all night time.’”

This account of Naughty Canine’s tradition relies on interviews with 13 present and former builders, all of whom spoke anonymously as a result of they weren’t given permission to talk to press, in addition to reporting I did for my 2017 guide, Blood, Sweat, and Pixels, which detailed the turbulent manufacturing of Uncharted 4. As is commonly the case, we couldn’t share a lot of these builders’ private tales of sacrifice with out risking their identities, and as traditional, we erred on the facet of warning with a view to hold sources protected.

A consultant for Sony and Naughty Canine turned down interview requests with studio administration and declined to supply remark.

Crunch tradition at Naughty Canine isn’t a secret. The studio is open about this mentality in interviews with new hires, and its managers intentionally hunt down perfectionists in artwork, design, engineering, and the entire different disciplines that make video games occur. The kind of individuals Naughty Canine desires to rent are the kind of individuals who will willingly keep late on the workplace with a view to make their video games higher—the kind of individuals who would take the time to make sacks of grain deflate while you shoot them. At Naughty Canine, no person asks the builders to crunch. No one has to ask. They’ll be there anyway.


In October of 2016, 5 months after the discharge of Uncharted 4, I visited Naughty Canine’s smooth places of work in Santa Monica, California and interviewed round 20 of their prime builders about what it had been prefer to work on Nathan Drake’s newest journey. They had been candid about how tough the method had been—the compressed schedule, the infinite nights and weekends, the stress that by the tip of all of it, the sport may not really come collectively. A dramatic reboot halfway by way of growth had led to Naughty Canine veteran Amy Hennig exiting the studio and The Final of Us administrators Neil Druckmann and Bruce Straley taking up course on Uncharted 4, a lot to their chagrin. Druckmann and Straley discovered themselves rewriting the script and making speedy selections simply to “feed the beast”—to maintain all of these individuals working—and so they had lower than two years to complete the sport.

Throughout our interview, Straley instructed me he hoped to mitigate crunch for the following recreation. “I’d by no means wish to do Uncharted 4 once more,” he mentioned. “As a result of now we’ve lived by way of that… The power of the group now while you stroll round is so nice. You see smiles. Persons are enthusiastic about what they’re engaged on.” Two months later, Straley was gone. He left Naughty Canine for a sabbatical that morphed right into a everlasting departure, leaving a void that was tough to fill. Straley was well-respected on the studio and was acknowledged as an intense however honest chief who had his fingers on virtually each facet of the sport. After I requested him on Kotaku’s Splitscreen podcast in 2018 about his departure, it was clear that he’d felt burnt out. “It was actually exhausting to think about getting again into the job and feeling as energized as I used to be again on The Final of Us or Uncharted 2,” he mentioned. “And so I simply felt there was a shift in me—one thing else was build up in me that was like, ‘Alright, let’s see what else is on the market.’”

After the fourth Uncharted, Naughty Canine break up into two teams. One chunk of the studio labored on the DLC-turned-standalone-game Uncharted: Misplaced Legacy, a manufacturing that, for some individuals, was much more tense than Uncharted 4. (“It was the worst crunch I’ve ever skilled,” one developer instructed me.) One other chunk entered preproduction on The Final of Us II, which might be the studio’s subsequent huge venture.

Illustration for article titled As Naughty Dog Crunches On iThe Last Of Us II/i, Developers Wonder How Much Longer This Approach Can Last

This time, in hopes that they wouldn’t repeat the errors of Uncharted 4, Neil Druckmann and different leads acquired collectively and tried to map out precisely what The Final of Us II would appear like as far upfront as doable. “They actually felt like that they had discovered a option to not must crunch as a lot,” mentioned one developer. “They’d labored out lots of the beats of the sport and all of the options forward of time.”

However in recreation growth, issues hardly ever go as deliberate. As Naughty Canine’s builders labored on a demo for E3 2018 and started exhibiting builds of the sport to playtesters for suggestions, the administrators and leads discovered that a few of their selections weren’t working. Elements of the narrative weren’t resonating with gamers, who mentioned they weren’t keen on characters that the writers hoped could be likable. In response, Druckmann and the opposite leads began scrapping and revising. “That’s the place adjustments had been taking place,” mentioned one developer. “We have to add some stuff right here in order that it tells extra of this story or provides you extra narrative beats.”

This sort of iteration isn’t unusual on any online game, and it’s usually what results in essentially the most memorable moments in Naughty Canine’s video games, reminiscent of the primary Final of Us, by which the long-lasting giraffe scene was not initially a part of the script. One of the crucial difficult elements of any online game’s growth is that even options that sound unbelievable on paper would possibly prove to really feel terrible to play, which might result in months and months of additional work. And it’s at all times tough to withstand the urge so as to add good concepts as they arrive up all through manufacturing.

On The Final of Us II, these revisions led to all kinds of stress and scope creep. Every single day, the sport grew larger, and shortly it had dwarfed the corporate’s earlier releases. “What we realized fairly early on is that we had been placing collectively Naughty Canine’s most formidable and longest recreation in our 35 12 months historical past,” Druckmann would later write. “To inform this type of story the sport wanted to be large.”

By the end of 2018, most departments at the studio were in crunch mode, spending extra hours at the office to keep up with all of their tasks. Some people had to work late because they had more to do than could be fit into a standard workday; others found themselves trapped by pipeline clogs. There was the designer who couldn’t leave until they received feedback from the directors, who were tied up in meetings all day and couldn’t look at the build until 6 or 7 p.m. There was the animator who got stuck at the office waiting for their work to be implemented in the game by scripters and designers. There were artists giving one another assignments—explosions and gunshots and hey, could you make it so this cut-scene looks just right?

“There’s a lot of pushing your current workload aside to meet these real-time demands that come across your desk,” said one Naughty Dog developer. “Do this thing you weren’t planning for, that other thing you weren’t planning for, plus what you were planning for.”

On The Last of Us II, this became a never-ending cycle. “You feel obligated to be there later, because everyone else is there later,” said one former developer. “If an animation needed to be put in and you weren’t there to help the animator, you’re now blocking the animator, and they may give you grief. It may not even be spoken—it may just be a look. ‘Man, you totally screwed me last night by not being here at 11 p.m.’”

During production, elements of the game kept changing, and there was no real way to be sure whether all of those changes would be for the better. “What they probably underestimate is that when you work for two to three years on a game, you want to change things sometimes because you’ve seen them for a year,” said one Naughty Dog developer. Sometimes, as any creative can attest, it’s hard to tell whether you’re revising that story beat or gameplay mechanic because it actually needs to be changed or because you’ve looked at it so long that you’ve gotten sick of it. “I think it’s hard to get distance,” the developer said.

Worst of all for some of Naughty Dog’s developers were the times when a high-level decision might lead to their work being scrapped without them even knowing it. An artist might be working on a building in The Last of Us II’s post-disaster version of America without realizing that their scene was cut or overhauled. They might not find out for days or even weeks, leading to hours and hours of wasted work—a demoralizing feeling compounded by the other stresses of production. Contradicting direction has also been a common occurrence at the studio. During the development on Uncharted 4, Straley and Druckmann had divergent visions over whether a sneaking scene should have guards in it, leading to three weeks of wasted work for three people.

Many growth studios attempt to remedy issues like these with a manufacturing division—the a part of the group devoted to group, logistics, and communication. It’s a producer’s job to maintain monitor of what individuals are engaged on, coordinate throughout disciplines, and be certain that the entire group is staying on schedule. At Naughty Canine, there isn’t a manufacturing division. Over time, the corporate has employed a few producers to assist with scheduling and different duties, however the studio’s philosophy has lengthy been that everybody ought to act as their own producer.

On one hand, this may create an empowering, autonomous ambiance, the place designers and artists are free so as to add the little graphical thrives that make Naughty Canine video games distinctive. No one must cope with additional layers of paperwork in the event that they wish to, say, make sacks of grain deflate while you shoot them. Alternatively, no person is there to maintain the builders of The Final of Us II speaking or cease them from altering issues for the sake of change. And no person’s going to inform anybody to cease staying at work all night time.

“It’s an incredible inventive setting,” mentioned one developer on The Final of Us II. “However you may’t go dwelling.”

Because of these issues, Naughty Canine has seen a gentle trickle of exits over the previous 5 years. That sort of attrition may be crushing, not simply because individuals are compelled to say goodbye to pricey buddies, however as a result of these buddies depart holes that make all of those issues even worse.


If there’s one division at Naughty Canine most important to the manufacturing of its video games, it’s design, which serves as a nexus for the entire firm’s selections. Designers at Naughty Canine act as stewards for various sections of the sport, working with scripters, artists, audio, and programmers with a view to block out and finalize every degree. That’s why it’s been such a blow for the studio to lose so a lot of them.

Lately, veteran Naughty Canine workers describe the design division as a sea of unfamiliar faces. With 70 p.c of the non-lead designers and a major variety of artists who labored on Uncharted 4 now gone, the corporate has needed to fill these roles with much less skilled employees, a lot of whom hadn’t labored on Naughty Canine video games earlier than The Final of Us II.

Each newcomer means weeks’ or months’ price of coaching and exhausting classes about how the remainder of the group works. A process which may take a veteran designer two hours may take twice or thrice as lengthy for a more recent worker, and it may be exhausting to know what the administrators need till you’ve been working there lengthy sufficient. On The Final of Us II, new artists working with new designers discovered themselves baffled as to methods to hit the requirements that Naughty Canine anticipated, an issue exacerbated by a administration tradition by which suggestions is often unfavourable. (One of many studio’s unwritten maxims is that in the event you don’t hear something, you’re doing nicely.) “It’s been somewhat little bit of the blind main the blind as we go in circles and discover our method,” mentioned one developer.

Previously, Naughty Canine has been reluctant to rent junior-level employees for this very cause. The studio’s bar for element is so excessive that inexperienced individuals are unlikely to hit it on their first or second tries, which inevitably results in hours of rework and hours of crunch for everybody.

Naughty Canine’s lead designers “anticipate the identical degree of high quality out of lots of the junior contractors as they do out of people that have been right here for some time, which is ridiculous,” mentioned one developer. “It’s definitely led to lots of stress and feeling like shit to most people who find themselves new, which sucks.”

Illustration for article titled As Naughty Dog Crunches On iThe Last Of Us II/i, Developers Wonder How Much Longer This Approach Can Last

There have been quite a lot of causes for attrition within the design division, together with numerous people’ unhappiness with leads, lack of promotion alternatives, and Bruce Straley’s departure. However the primary cause, present and former workers say, is that Naughty Canine’s tradition of crunch has burned a lot of them out. The artwork division has additionally misplaced quite a lot of individuals since Uncharted 4, together with leads and one artwork director. “The administration degree was actually understaffed,” mentioned one developer of the artwork division. “There was no try made to rent extra.”

After the brutal growth cycles of Uncharted 4 and Uncharted Misplaced Legacy, Naughty Canine has discovered itself with little alternative however to rent a disproportionately excessive variety of juniors and contractors for The Final of Us II, even when that perpetuates most of the issues that triggered senior employees to go away.

Some at Naughty Canine who spoke to me for this story mentioned they anticipate extra individuals to stop, or that they plan to go away themselves, as soon as The Final of Us II has shipped and bonuses got here in (which is often six months after launch). And so the cycle will proceed.


On September 24, 2019, Naughty Canine introduced to the general public that The Final of Us II could be launched in February. A month later, Naughty Canine’s administration instructed the employees that they wanted to slide three months, to Could 29, 2020. It’s not clear why this delay occurred so quickly after the general public announcement, but it surely was clear what it will imply: three extra months of crunch.

To some who labored there, this was improbable information. There was concern among the many employees that in the event that they needed to ship in February, The Final of Us II could be a large number. These three months would make an enormous distinction. However to those that had grown bored with lengthy nights and weekends on the workplace, the delay simply meant extra time on the treadmill. When Naughty Canine’s bosses knowledgeable the corporate that the sport was slipping, they emphasised that they wished to take care of their momentum. “Individuals pondering the extension is someway to alleviate stress or the workload on the group are flawed,” mentioned one developer. “The very first thing that they wished to reiterate is that we aren’t slowing down the tempo.”

In mid-February, Naughty Canine acquired one other two weeks, convincing Sony to delay their remaining manufacturing date so they might squeeze in as a lot bug-fixing as doable. Once more, the messaging was clear: Sustain the momentum. Naughty Canine’s managers would by no means inform individuals to work additional time—it was at all times an implication, understood and accepted by everybody. Many had been comfortable to do it, hoping to cram in as many thrives and options as they might, and keen to place in as many hours as doable to make The Final of Us II nice.

“That’s one of many causes crunch at all times occurs right here,” mentioned one developer. “Persons are given the liberty to maintain working longer, to push the envelope of what they’re engaged on, to make issues simply 10 p.c higher. It’s what the studio seems to be for when hiring individuals. They’re in search of individuals with that drive to truly put in these additional hours, for higher or worse.”

Whereas reporting this story, I heard quite a lot of anecdotes about particular person builders’ experiences. Workers would are available in carrying sick masks so they might hold working even with dangerous coughs (earlier than the current coronavirus outbreak). They’d skip meals—or showers. One developer instructed me that they had seen individuals so shackled to their desks that they wouldn’t even take the time to go to the kitchen and seize the free crunch dinners.

Just a few Naughty Canine employees have certainly discovered methods to keep away from additional time, working intensely for eight hours a day after which leaving. However for many of the employees, there’s an unstated social strain to stay round. No one desires to be the particular person leaving at 6 or 7 p.m. when everybody else plans to remain till midnight. No one desires to be the one developer who’s not there on a Saturday, combating to make each strand of Ellie’s hair look good. And there’s nobody within the workplace telling everybody to go dwelling.

A number of the builders at Naughty Canine are simply wonderful with the studio’s tradition, which is why it exists within the first place. They’re paid nicely, handled pretty, and given in depth time without work on the finish of manufacturing. Salaried employees aren’t paid for additional time work, however they’ll get first rate bonuses after every recreation ships. As is typical in California, contractors and people working for hourly pay at Naughty Canine are paid time-and-a-half after eight hours and double time after twelve, however many are on restricted contracts, and so they aren’t eligible for bonuses or different perks. For contractors, the carrot of full-time employment was an incentive to place in additional time hours.

“There’s this unstated settlement,” mentioned one Naughty Canine staffer. “Lots of people are very proud that they’re making the Recreation of the 12 months, the top-quality recreation, essentially the most superb artwork. Whereas that’s true, I don’t know in the event that they’re calculating the sacrifices.”

Stated one other Naughty Canine developer: “They’ve by no means seen success another method, so that they don’t consider there’s one other method of reaching it.”

Naughty Canine’s administration actively seeks out workaholics, as president Evan Wells instructed me in October of 2016. “We crunch on all our video games for certain,” he mentioned then. “We by no means [change] our forty-hour expectation or our core hours, that are 10:30 a.m. to six:30 p.m.… Individuals put in much more hours, but it surely’s based mostly on their very own gasoline, how a lot they’ve of their tank.”

“Individuals simply naturally do it,” Wells mentioned. “As a result of we rent a specific kind of one who’s motivated and passionate and needs to go away their mark on the trade. That’s why they arrive to Naughty Canine.”

However how lengthy will they keep? And the way lengthy can this final? As extra Naughty Canine workers get married, have children, or just burn out—both from the crunch or out of frustrations with Naughty Canine’s manufacturing fashion—it’s honest to surprise what p.c of Uncharted 4’s builders will nonetheless be there within the subsequent 12 months or two. With a while and distance, the exhilaration of crunch can simply flip into disgrace and remorse. A number of veteran Naughty Canine builders instructed me that they had as soon as purchased into the corporate’s mentality—“Stockholm Syndrome” was a generally used phrase—however have realized over time that it was unhealthy for his or her lives in all kinds of the way.

Illustration for article titled As Naughty Dog Crunches On iThe Last Of Us II/i, Developers Wonder How Much Longer This Approach Can Last

Some who work or labored for Naughty Canine say they consider that if the corporate doesn’t discover a option to remedy the crunch drawback, it’ll remedy itself by way of attrition. Though some veterans might by no means depart—the Naughty Canine lifers who thrive on these lengthy hours and an consideration to element that few different studios can command—the previous few years have signaled in any other case. After Uncharted 4 and Uncharted Misplaced Legacy, even a few of the designers and artists who had been at Naughty Canine for greater than a decade determined to name it quits. One developer instructed me that towards the tip of 2017 and into 2018, it felt like they had been getting new farewell emails each week.

On Could 29, The Final of Us Half II will come out. Those that have labored on it inform me they consider it is going to be phenomenal, one other shining entry in Naughty Canine’s quest for excellence in any respect prices. Some say they suppose it’s the perfect recreation Naughty Canine has ever made.

But there are additionally these builders, a few of whom nonetheless work at Naughty Canine in the present day, who say that there’s part of them that truly needs this recreation would fail. A crucial flop would possibly assist present Naughty Canine that this isn’t one of the simplest ways to make video games, that this degree of sacrifice isn’t essential, that perhaps the venture isn’t price shedding all of those individuals. That maybe, regardless of what number of Recreation of the 12 months nominations they win or how excessive their Metacritic scores climb, all the person hairs on Joel’s eyebrows or the grains of sand in a burlap sack simply aren’t price the fee.