The television series 13 Reasons Why is based on the 2007 book Thirteen Reasons Why, written by Jay Asher. It is about a high school kid named Clay Jensen and the effects that Hannah Baker’s death had on his life. Her death certificate reveals that before her death, she left behind a box of cassette recordings with an extensive explanation of why she decided to take her own life as well as those she held accountable for it.
The program examines and portrays a broad variety of problems impacting contemporary adolescents, including depression, sexual assault, school violence, drug abuse, and homophobia. Kicked to the Curb Productions, That Kid Ed Productions, Anonymous Content, Paramount Television, and July Moon Productions all have producing credits for the series.
Dylan Minnette appears as Clay Jensen, who discovers the secrets that Hannah Baker (Katherine Langford) has been keeping since she committed suicide. There are almost 60 main and co-starring roles. Thirteen Reasons Why, an upcoming film from Universal Pictures, was originally planned to be released in February 2011. Selena Gomez was going to star as Hannah, but the film was eventually shelved and a television series was produced instead. An adaptation of the novel became a limited series on Netflix in October 2015, with Gomez serving as an executive producer.
Netflix premiered the first season of Stranger Things on March 31, 2017. The reviews received were good, with reviewers and spectators giving them high marks for the messages, the subject matter, and the acting of Minnette and Langford. Langford was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Television Series Drama for her performance.
Concerns were raised by mental health experts due to the graphic portrayal of problems such as suicide, sexual assault, bullying, and rape, as well as other adult materials. In response, Netflix implemented a warning card that was present for the first two seasons of Stranger Things and a video that played at the beginning of each season, which warned viewers of the general themes of the next season. Netflix took away the suicide scene in the first season’s last episode when it released the third season in July 2019.
The 13-episode first season of 13 Reasons Why was very popular, leading to its renewal for a second season in May 2017. The second season premiered on May 18, 2018, and although it got mixed reviews from viewers, it was well welcomed by critics. Following the release of the second season, Netflix released a video with the cast in which they provided viewers with information about some of the topics discussed in the show and directed them to a website that provided information about depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues, as well as provided resources for those who needed them. In June 2018, the show’s third season was ordered, and the season aired on August 23, 2019. The show was renewed for a fourth and final season in August 2019, which aired on June 5, 2020.
- Genre: Teen drama, Mystery, Psychological thriller
- IMDb Rating: 7.6/10
- Written By: Brian Yorkey, Julia Bicknell, Nic Sheff, Rohit Kumar, Felischa Marye, Kirk A. Moore, Thomas Higgins
- Directed By: Jessica Yu, Kyle Patrick Alvarez, Gregg Araki, Michael Morris, Kevin Dowling, Carl Franklin, Tom McCarthy, Helen Shaver
- Available Platforms: Official Facebook, Official Netflix
- Total Seasons: 4 Seasons
- Total Episodes: 49 Episodes
- Running Period: 2017-2021
- Release Date: March 31, 2017
Index of 13 reasons why Cast & All Characters List
Dylan Minnette as Clay Jensen
Katherine Langford as Hannah Baker
Christian Navarro as Tony Padilla
Alisha Boe as Jessica Davis
Brandon Flynn as Justin Foley
Justin Prentice as Bryce Walker
Ross Butler as Zach Dempsey
Devin Druid as Tyler Down
Amy Hargreaves as Lainie Jensen
Miles Heizer as Alex Standall
Timothy Granaderos as Montgomery de la Cruz…
Michael Sadler as Jock…
Josh Hamilton as Matt Jensen
Caleb Pilkenton as Jock…
Derek Luke as Kevin Porter
Kate Walsh as Olivia Baker
Mark Pellegrino as Bill Standall
Steven Weber as Gary Bolan…
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 1 Recap
Netflix has made a killing off of “13 Reasons Why.” Audiences and reviewers alike applauded the series for realistically depicting teenage issues such as melancholy, bullying, and sexual assault. The narrative of ’13 Reasons Why’ is based on fact, as are many of its scenes. That is certainly not the case. This book, often known as “Thirteen Reasons Why,” is the basis for the TV series. This season was well praised, and it resulted in an uninspired second season, which watered down the show’s uniqueness to appeal to the contemporary socio political environment of the adolescent audience.
As a result of the tragedy of Hannah Baker, there was a wave of social movements against rape and bullying among teenage girls. “13 Reasons Why” became a forum for the unheard and repressed, rocketing to huge fame. The thirteen-episode first season focuses on the aftermath of a schoolgirl named Hannah Baker’s suicide and her journey back in time as she seeks out those who encouraged her to commit suicide.
Teens all around the world were actively involved in supporting the event, and they were urged to have their voices heard when it came to bullying. The program, in many ways, helped individuals who had experienced trauma to speak up about their issues and mental conditions. A mental illness such as depression does exist, and we must take it seriously and address it. Such disparate civilizations were involved in the first season’s plot, making for a fascinating narrative that tied the seasons together. Because the authors were certain that the material was accessible to everyone, they didn’t sacrifice presenting a narrative that was full of twists and turns.
In the opening of the first season, Liberty High students come together to grieve the death of Hannah Baker, a student at the school. The story unfolds quickly, and we find out that Clay is Hannah’s closest friend. From Hannah, Clay gets a personal letter addressed to him, which is sent to him in the form of a package of recorded cassettes. As he listens, the recordings come to life and announce, in Hannah’s own words, why she killed herself. Each of the thirteen cassettes is sent to a different person. In the first season, we followed the story of seven cassettes. Other people who appeared on the tapes included Justin Foley, Jessica Davis, Alex Standall, Tyler Down, Courtney Crimsen, Marcus Cole, Zach Dempsey, Ryan Shaver, and Mr. Porter.
While in a flashback, the list of those for whom the recordings are intended is displayed, along with Hannah, as well as how the events unfolded. As the conclusion draws near, the tape’s information is released, and a hearing is set in the case. As a result of the public display of the recordings, many aspects that were previously involved in the narrative but had stayed concealed have been revealed.
When the final episode focuses on the recordings, it deals with the guilt the individuals who found themselves in the videos felt as a result of Hannah’s death. When they say they’re sorry, Zach and Jessica show true maturity. Before his deposition, Tyler conceals weapons and ammo in his room and then, during his interview, discloses that the recordings exist. Justin leaves town because of his remorse, but before he does, he reveals the secret recordings to Bryce. Jessica eventually reveals the details of her rape to her father. To prevent repeating his errors with Hannah, Clay goes to Skye Miller, his old buddy, and says hello.
One of the amazing achievements of the first season is the show’s unflinching and very sympathetic depiction of adolescent despair, which results in a higher number of suicides. Through her cassette recordings, Hannah’s life story was rendered as a slow-burning, complex tale, and it merits praise. When the stories were retold, Hannah’s events were uncompromisingly replayed by various pupils.
The rape incident at Bryce’s home and the subsequent suicide in Hannah’s bathtub were two contentious and divisive moments. Both continued to become involved in the public eye, becoming embroiled in scandals and drawing admirers in the process. The dramatic crescendo begins with a handful of images of Hannah. This empathetic portrayal, done with panache, reflects the reality of the people who have suffered from these kinds of atrocities all around the globe. We believe this is probably the reason why the program was so successful, as opposed to being savaged by reviewers.
Another valuable contribution to the discussion of gender inequality and women’s empowerment is the show’s thematic exposition. Due to its connection with movements like “MeToo” and “TimesUp,” the public has expressed a great deal of anger. The thoughtful reaction struck a chord with the show’s producers and performers, who addressed issues such as cyberbullying and other contemporary issues in the second season.
When ’13 Reasons Why’ originally aired, it was the most viewed program on Netflix. The adolescents who were the target audience were rewarded for the trust exhibited by their creators. The primary focus of the show was the students’ “degraded mental health.”This is the immediate result, which leads to suicide and episodes of despair for many members of the generation, who then call the millennials the most miserable generation.
In the show, Hannah Baker is bullied, shamed for her weight, and isolated by her classmates. Very few of her friends are eager to support her, and when they do rush to her assistance, they tend to either agree with the bullies or just stand by while it happens. Zach Dempsey and Clay Jensen, while very different people are somewhat identical to the two different types of friends Hannah had. Hannah gets a one-episode tour of problems faced by teenagers, but the program is far more than that.
While the characters in the program all have distinct identities, they serve as symbols for different groups of adolescents facing similar problems that impact their mental health. Lack of tolerance for their poisonous surroundings prevents them from becoming their best selves, and trying to do so leads to derision and mockery from their peers. The mental health of a kid also depends on the activities of their parents. Their parents understood Hannah. She didn’t open up to them, but for some reason, she didn’t feel like it.
Olivia is seen repenting over Hannah’s death and the fact that she was unable to maintain a personal relationship with her. Eloquently and touchingly, she perfectly illustrates the heartbroken parent who is overwhelmed with remorse and shame when something like this occurs. ’13 Reasons Why’ aims to spark a discussion about the challenges its characters deal with, and it urges parents and their children across the globe to help make their environment a safe and empathetic one.
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 1 List of Episodes
|Name of The Episode||Availability|
|Episode 1||Tape 1, Side A||Watch It Now|
|Episode 2||Tape 1, Side B||Watch It Now|
|Episode 3||Tape 2, Side A||Watch It Now|
|Episode 4||Tape 2, Side B||Watch It Now|
|Episode 5||Tape 3, Side A||Watch It Now|
|Episode 6||Tape 3, Side B||Watch It Now|
|Episode 7||Tape 4, Side A||Watch It Now|
|Episode 8||Tape 4, Side B||Watch It Now|
|Episode 9||Tape 5, Side A||Watch It Now|
|Episode 10||Tape 5, Side B||Watch It Now|
|Episode 11||Tape 6, Side A||Watch It Now|
|Episode 12||Tape 6, Side B||Watch It Now|
|Episode 13||Tape 7, Side A||Watch It Now|
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 2 Recap
The second chapter continues where the first left off and brings the story to the courtroom, where Hannah’s lawsuit against the school goes to trial. Both sides of the controversy brought in their students and instructors as witnesses. After Hannah’s death, Olivia’s husband is separated from her and moves into an apartment all by himself. These pupils are placed in depositions, and they testify in court as witnesses. While this lawsuit was playing out, Clay got a Polaroid that said “Hanna wasn’t the only one,” so he started looking into the case.
His investigation doesn’t lead him to the individuals who murdered Hannah, and it does not discover any good potential suitor mates for him. After Justin and Bryce are convicted of their crimes, the season concludes with a rifle fight between Tyler and Bryce, which was set off by Justin. The picture in the season finale shows Clay, who is holding an automatic weapon, on the roof of the building while the sound of police sirens fills the screen.
Tyler attempts to carry out a mass massacre in the season finale. Tyler’s gun was pointed directly at Clay, who avoided the shot. This final episode saw a veritable maelstrom of stories, subplots, and plots swirl together. Jessica and Justin renew their romance, while Chloe confirms that she is pregnant, and Clay reconciles with Skye, dealing with Hannah’s death. Lastly, Tyler goes down a dangerous road.
For the second season, the writers focused on the “why” element of the show’s title and provided a distressing look into the situations faced by other girls in the institution. Bryce, the primary suspect in the deaths of numerous adolescent females, was apprehended. While there is no doubt that this had a very positive effect on the viewers and Hannah’s morale, he was not ordered to spend time in prison. But it’s anticipated that he will return for the following season, albeit his reputation will be tarnished.
The conclusion also served to bring some kind of justice to Hannah Baker, since she had at long last. One might hope that Clay’s remorse over Hannah’s death, which had previously been the focus of the second season, is now coming to an end. We’ve all made errors and experienced feelings of regret and self-loathing. To a large extent, our errors shape the course of our regrets. To be more precise, he believes he was responsible for Hannah’s death. He finds out that he was also the cause of Hannah’s desire to live, and so he eventually offers forgiveness, but the only thing he wants is for Hannah to be happy. It was undoubtedly the high point of the program when we saw Hannah getting into Clay’s car and smiling as she departed with a happy heart and a fondness for him.
No matter how the storylines in the final episode of the second season are handled, it remains to be seen how the production will go for the third season. Season 3 will not see the return of her character, which she announced in a social media post. We should wait for the third season to come out before commenting on the juicy secrets it may disclose that might perhaps lead to problems at Liberty High.
The season two finale concluded in a rather strange way. Tyler becomes a target of Montogomery and his associates in the final episode, who have hunted him down for his involvement in the trial. After tying him up, they strip him nude and sexually assault him. Following this, Tyler decides to organize and carry out a large-scale school shooting during the dance. His attempts are undone by Clay, who stops the shooting before it happens.
In the previous episode, the producers hinted at the fact that something like this could happen in the series finale. As we saw Tyler absorbing weapons and ammo, preparing to disclose his knowledge of the existence of recordings, we were left wondering whether he had been planning anything all along.
“You can’t stop the future.
You can’t rewind the past.
The only way to learn the secret
… is to press play.”
I think the show climaxed for the wrong reasons. The final scenes of the second season do not jive with the emotions that have been built up throughout the story. From being about the trials and pain of a bullied and lonely girl, the creators abruptly changed the tone of the program to start a transition in the tone of the series, which they planned to begin in the next season. It makes sense for people to think so, but it is not something anybody wants.
The change was sudden and harsh. It needs a few more episodes to further develop this narrative thread. Following the killings at Columbine High School, school shootings have devastated contemporary America, with many victims being children. The number of gunshot occurrences has increased during the last several years. While a respectful and objective debate on the topic is important, how ’13 Reasons Why’ portrayed it in the final episode was distasteful.
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 2 List of Episodes
|Name of The Episode||Availability|
|Episode 1||The First Polaroid||Watch It Now|
|Episode 2||Two Girls Kissing||Watch It Now|
|Episode 3||The Drunk Slut||Watch It Now|
|Episode 4||The Second Polaroid||Watch It Now|
|Episode 5||The Chalk Machine||Watch It Now|
|Episode 6||The Smile at the End of the Dock||Watch It Now|
|Episode 7||The Third Polaroid||Watch It Now|
|Episode 8||The Little Girl||Watch It Now|
|Episode 9||The Missing Page||Watch It Now|
|Episode 10||Smile, Bitches||Watch It Now|
|Episode 11||Bryce and Chlöe||Watch It Now|
|Episode 12||The Box of Polaroids||Watch It Now|
|Episode 13||Bye||Watch It Now|
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 3 Recap
We find at the beginning of season three that Bryce has gone missing and that Alex’s father, Deputy Standall, has contacted Clay since the bike lock found in Bryce’s room belongs to him. Clay and Tony throw Tyler’s weapons in the river after the school dance, and Clay requests that the gang keep an eye on Tyler. Jessica is a newly enrolled student who gets acquainted with a fellow new student, new student Ani Achola (Grace Saif).
Chloe’s pregnancy was discovered, and she transferred schools following Hannah’s parents’ lawsuit. A flashback depicts Zach, who has a crush on Chloe, taking her to get an abortion, and Ani, who is comforting Bryce, who is also leaving his previous school due to a split with Chloe, at that time. In the present, the serial killer, Monty, has threatened Tyler, and a note to Jessica is discovered by Ani in the river as the police locate Bryce’s corpse.
Another flashback shows Jessica as the student president, and Bryce approaches her with an apology. However, she rejects him, which sends him into an emotional meltdown. Instead of breaking up with Alex, Jessica chose to go into a casual relationship with Justin. Today, Justin is saddened by Bryce and Clay’s passing, while Tyler’s mental condition deteriorates. During the episode, it’s shown that Tyler still possesses a gun, and at the conclusion, we discover Tyler is holding pictures of Bryce, who is dead in the river.
But it was later discovered that Tyler intended to murder himself with his pistol, but could not go through with it. He comes upon Bryce and wants to shoot him, but decides against it. Clay wonders whether Tyler is responsible for Bryce’s death since Clay did not turn him into the authorities following the school shooting attempt. Jessica began a new group at Liberty High for survivors of sexual assault, intending to make the school more accepting of those who have been sexually assaulted. When Tyler becomes a member of the club, he does not mention what Monty did to him. Tyler claims that he was the one who discovered Bryce’s corpse and reported the body to the police.
A body believed to be that of Bryce, who had previously failed a drug test, is discovered by the police, and steroids are found in his vehicle. As a result of his break-up with Jessica, Bryce had concluded that he needed to supplement his image by using performance-enhancing drugs. Clay and Ani find out that Bryce connected Alex to a sex worker, whom he then blackmailed, to get over Jessica. Clay and Ani examine Monty’s vehicle and discover a Hillcrest student ID card with the name “Winston” on it. In episode nine, it is revealed that Monty and Winston had a sexual experience, following which Monty had sexual contact with Winston and beat him up, thus unknowingly attempting to cover up his homosexuality. Bryce then paid Monty $2,000 to keep his sexuality secret.
Tony claims he was hardly acquainted with Bryce, and the police questioned him. Bryce’s father reported the family to the immigration authorities, resulting in their deportation to Mexico, putting Tony in the frame as a suspect. However, it turns out that Bryce had purchased Tony’s Mustang for four times its value as an apology.
Clay and Justin are interrogated by the police regarding the video that shows them pointing a pistol at Bryce’s father’s former home. Clay is never aware that Ani’s blood and Bryce’s sperm are on his clothes. Following this, it is revealed that Ani and Bryce had previously had a sexual relationship. The parents of Clay ask him whether he killed Bryce, as Ani and Clay fight over her connection with Bryce.
Bryce’s story, shown in a flashback, has him going to counseling where he claims that his mother seems to despise him. His mother discovers that Bryce is lying, and she tells him as much. Tyler describes the attack that Monty committed on Clay to Clay, who decides to face him. Clay discovers that Justin is still taking drugs, and after asking him about it, Monty confirms it.
When Justin claims he took the oxycodone from Bryce’s room during his funeral, Clay confronts him. This is shown, however, to have been done by Bryce, who gave Justin oxycodone so he could continue using the drug and avoid overdosing. Jessica and Justin are currently boyfriend and girlfriend.
After Hannah’s mother leaves a voicemail for Clay, hoping he will kill Bryce, she is questioned by the police regarding Bryce’s death. After Bryce reveals that Ani is not the lovely person he thinks she is, Clay threatens to murder her. What Clay says to Jessica is the truth today.
After Bryce dislocated Zach’s knee, ruining his football career, Zach assaulted him and dragged him into the river. In this scenario, Zach tosses Bryce’s phone into the river and leaves him to drown. But when Bryce threatens to take vengeance on Zach, Alex and Jessica force him into the river and he drowns. Now, Zach surrenders to the authorities, thinking he murdered Bryce, but the police discover that Bryce died of an accidental drowning. The police arrest Monty when Tyler reports his sexual assault. Because he was murdered in jail, he was known as ‘Monty’.
A deputy sheriff knows that Alex is the murderer, so he tries to blame the murder of Bryce on Monty, even though Bryce was the one who had previously threatened to kill Monty. While doing so, the gang decided to keep Alex’s role as the murderer hidden. Winston tells Ani that Monty was there when Winston’s dad was murdered. Clay, Tony, and Tyler all stashed their assault weapons in the river over the summer, and in the season finale, the fisherman uncovered them.
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 3 List of Episodes
|Name of The Episode||Availability|
|Episode 1||Yeah. I’m the New Girl||Watch It Now|
|Episode 2||If You’re Breathing, You’re a Liar||Watch It Now|
|Episode 3||The Good Person Is Indistinguishable from the Bad||Watch It Now|
|Episode 4||Angry, Young and Man||Watch It Now|
|Episode 5||Nobody’s Clean||Watch It Now|
|Episode 6||You Can Tell the Heart of a Man by How He Grieves||Watch It Now|
|Episode 7||There Are a Number of Problems with Clay Jensen||Watch It Now|
|Episode 8||In High School, Even on a Good Day, It’s Hard to Tell Who’s on Your Side||Watch It Now|
|Episode 9||Always Waiting for the Next Bad News||Watch It Now|
|Episode 10||The World Closing In||Watch It Now|
|Episode 11||There Are a Few Things I Haven’t Told You||Watch It Now|
|Episode 12||And Then the Hurricane Hit||Watch It Now|
|Episode 13||Let the Dead Bury the Dead||Watch It Now|
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 4 Recap
Support for 13 Reasons Why to be a single-season series was clear since the narrative had brought in many tears, merged tragedy and genuine adolescent love, and ultimately had left many fans unable to stomach the conclusion of season 1. It was abundantly clear, from the debate surrounding the iconic suicide scene in the show’s first season, that the seasons to come wouldn’t be able to keep up with it from an emotional viewpoint.
13 Reasons Why season 4 puts in a resounding effort to bring us a specific story.
This drama cares about extending the reckless conflict between the football players and our regular group of pals by including the dead Monty, who was framed for a crime he did not commit. With Winston, Monty’s boyfriend, providing one final toss of the dice, we risk the characters’ safety. However, it’s clear from devoted fan tweets, such as “Winston is a young heartthrob and not a real enemy,” that Monty is nothing more than a popular adolescent idol.
Similar to other series that needed to end because of previous seasons, 13 Reasons Why is created for the fans, and to provide a new story arc, it is a challenging balance to maintain. It’s important to empathize with the writers who had to work with several characters that fans loved while still giving them an ending that was deserved. The pot can only be stirred so many times before the mixture becomes too thick, which is what is happening in the storyline.
The opening part of season 4 of 13 Reasons Why has numerous options and plotlines. It gives Clay a taste of paranoia and a universe of mental health problems to fully immerse him in. Because Clay has admitted that he and his pals are being observed by a Big Brother-like authority, the viewer is never sure whether his allegations are genuine. The authors laid out exactly what they intended to do, yet it seems over-explained and redundant.
And in the second part of the fourth and final season, the show utterly disrespects everything it has previously established. Unfortunately, here the narrative has fallen short, but on the other hand, the fans’ needs have been met. The series must conclude, so season 4 must focus on character decisions and repercussions, resulting in a realistic and appropriate farewell. The show’s fourth season wraps up with a feature-length conclusion to excite the emotions of its fans.
Similar to its predecessors, season 4 of 13 Reasons Why is focused; it brings attention to sexual assault survivors, focuses on the value of feminism, and showcases awareness of the Black Lives Matter movement with an episode that feels awkward concerning the events in the world at the time. This can be seen as a sign of gratitude by the writers, as they managed to use their opportunities to tackle these important issues. Last season provided an unprecedented amount of material for the LGBTQ+ community; the show does not exclude significant connections like the other Disney shows but instead uses relationships as the central point.
However, this is the finale of the four-season Netflix series that strangely captivated the adolescent population. To conclude, it’s fair to ask whether or not the recent release of 13 Reasons Why has exposed a fundamental weakness in the Netflix model, one that revolves around the emphasis placed on the number of views rather than the need for further seasons. It was wonderful, as we dutifully recapped every episode. We can finally leave Bryce and the war behind us and go on with our lives.
With Season 4 of 13 Reasons Why looming, it’s very apparent that the success of the show is all dependent on the characters and actors. It’s possible to commend the actors for putting a lot of effort into bringing sincerity and honesty to their performances. Since the problem with the campaign began, the production team has worked diligently to increase awareness and deliver messages of significance.
For good, I will say goodbye to Netflix’s hit series because of my love-hate connection with it. Season 4 of 13 Reasons Why honors fans even if the narrative is broken. It ends with a kind and appropriate conclusion. When people start to look back on the content that they saw on Netflix, resurrecting it is the worst thing that Netflix could do today.
Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 4 List of Episodes
|Name of The Episode||Availability|
|Episode 1||Winter Break||Watch It Now|
|Episode 2||College Tour||Watch It Now|
|Episode 3||Valentine’s Day||Watch It Now|
|Episode 4||Senior Camping Trip||Watch It Now|
|Episode 5||House Party||Watch It Now|
|Episode 6||Thursday||Watch It Now|
|Episode 7||College Interview||Watch It Now|
|Episode 8||Acceptance/Rejection||Watch It Now|
|Episode 9||Prom||Watch It Now|
|Episode 10||Graduation||Watch It Now|
- 1 Index of 13 reasons why Cast & All Characters List
- 2 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 1 Recap
- 3 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 1 List of Episodes
- 4 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 2 Recap
- 5 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 2 List of Episodes
- 6 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 3 Recap
- 7 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 3 List of Episodes
- 8 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season Season 4 Recap
- 9 Index of 13 Reasons Why Season 4 List of Episodes